That’s why I asked “When?” in reference to your claim of "prior to Prohibition". Yeah, in the years immediately leading up to Prohibition in the 1910’s, the “shipping breweries” barrelage stagnated while total US production increased. Tied houses helped the large locals and regionals in some markets (altho’ the nationals also owned saloons – Schlitz had 1600, Pabst had huge beer halls in NYC, etc). But that was hardly the only reason since there were a number of other industry and economic factors - more brewers bottling and under-selling the nationals (which depended more on bottled sales for distant export markets), rising costs of shipping and ingredients, the increasing strength of the Temperance movement (local option, state Prohibition laws, Sunday closings, anti-growler laws), war in Europe, etc. Still, not sure if “overtaking national breweries in market share” is how I’d put it but I don’t know if that’s the author’s terminology or yours. (I don’t have $30 for the article – well, I have it but will spend it on a case of beer.) Nor is that what the abstract claims- only that the local and regionals were able to offer "a competitive challenge to national firms"- with which, given the approx. 7% of the market the Big 3 (the biggest, but not the only "nationals") had at the time, no one would disagree - seeing as there were over 1700 other breweries in the US at the turn of the century. Certainly, most of the large regionals and other shipping breweries weren’t close to even a million barrels a year in production (Ruppert in NYC was probably the notable exception) - most of the other large US locals/shippers were selling in the 500k bbl. range – not even close to “overtaking” AB's million and half barrels a year. Nor, as I see it, is it what you claimed - that AB's pre-Pro market share was "dramatically declining". I noted AB's rise to 1 million barrels from the late 1870's (when they were #33 )to 1901 above. Barrelage figures are not available for every year in that period but AB’s totals went up every years after hitting 1m bbl., through at least 1906 (when they went over the 1.5m barrel mark). For one example, in 1904, AB claimed their increased production figures were 20% of the total increased total US barrelage of 900k. As US production increased after that, AB sales stagnated at around the 1.5m bbl., resulting in a reduction of market share from 2.7% to 2.3% by 1911, but, much as it probably didn't sit well with Adolphus, that’s hardly a “dramatic decline” nor does it suggest that other brewers were "overtaking" AB. It also appear that Pabst (and possibly Schlitz, for which I have no pre-Pro figures handy) were more affected by the author’s “competitive challenge” than AB was. Pabst, in particular, for the period of 1903-1913, hovered around a barrelage of 900k-1m bbl, while the US total went from 46m to 65m bbl., so their market share dipped from 2% to 1.5%.